January 13, 2000.
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Syrian Arab
Aiming at the achievement of a just, lasting and comprehensive
peace in the Middle East based on Security Council resolutions 242 and 338
and within the framework of the peace process initiated at Madrid on 31
Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the
Charter of the United Nations and recognizing their right and obligation to live in
peace with each other, as well as with all states, within secure and recognized
Desiring to establish mutual respect and to develop
honorable, friendly and good neighborly relations;
Resolved to establish permanent peace between them in
accordance with this Treaty.
Have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE I – Establishment of Peace and Security within Recognized Boundaries.
1. The state of war between Israel and Syria (hereinafter “the Parties”) is
hereby terminated and peace is established between them. The Parties will
maintain normal, peaceful relations as set out in Article III below.
2. The permanent secure and recognized international boundary between Israel
and Syria is the boundary set forth in Article II below. The location of the
boundary has been commonly agreed (Syrian position: and is based on the June
4, 1967 line) (Israeli position: taking into account security and other vital
interests of the Parties as well as legal considerations of both sides). Israel will
(S: withdraw) (I: relocate) all its armed forces (S: and civilians) behind this
boundary in accordance with Annex — of this Treaty. (S: Thereafter, each Party
will exercise its full sovereignty on its side of the international boundary,
including as agreed in this Treaty.)
3. To enhance the security of both Parties, agreed security measures will be
implemented in accordance with Article IV below.
4. The time line at Annex — sets forth an agreed schedule for synchronized
implementation of this and the other Articles of this Treaty.
ARTICLE II – International Boundary
1. The international boundary between Israel and Syria is as shown on the
mapping materials and co-ordinates specified in Annex –. This boundary is the
permanent, secure and recognized international boundary between Israel and
Syria and supercedes any previous boundary or line of demarcation between
2. The Parties will respect the inviolability of this boundary and of each other’s
territory, territorial waters and airspace.
3. A Joint Boundary Commission is hereby established. Its functions and
activities are set out in Annex –.
ARTICLE III – Normal Peaceful Relations
1. The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the
United Nations and the principles of international law governing relations among
states in time of peace. In particular:
a. they recognize and will respect each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity
and political independence and right to live in peace within secure and
recognized boundaries; and
b. they will establish and develop friendly and good neighborly relations, will
refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly, against each other,
will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and development in their region and
will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.
2. The Parties will establish full diplomatic and consular relations, including the
exchange of resident ambassadors.
3. The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in honorable and good
neighborly relations based on mutual respect and for this purpose will:
a. promote beneficial bilateral economic and trade relations including by
enabling the free and unimpeded flow of people, goods and services between
the two countries.
b. remove all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations, terminate
economic boycotts directed at the other Party, repeal all discriminatory
legislation, and cooperate in terminating boycotts against either Party by third
c. promote relations between them in the sphere of transportation. In this
regard, the Parties will open and maintain roads and international border
crossings between the two countries, cooperate in the development of rail links,
grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other or vessels
or cargoes destined for or coming from that Party, and enter into normal civil
d. establish normal postal, telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable
communications and television relay services by cable, radio and satellite
between them on a non-discriminatory basis in accordance with relevant
international conventions and regulations; and
e. promote cooperation in the field of tourism in order to facilitate and
encourage mutual tourism and tourism from third countries.
Annex — sets forth the agreed procedures for establishing and developing these
relations, (I: including the schedule for the attainment of relevant agreements as
well as arrangements concerning the Israelis and Israeli communities in areas
from which Israeli forces will be relocated pursuant to Article I).
4. The Parties undertake to ensure mutual enjoyment by each other’s citizens of
due process of law within their respective legal systems and before their courts.
(Notes (I) Components of normal peaceful relations which require further
discussion: cultural relations; environment; interconnection of electricity grids;
energy; health and medicine; and agriculture.
(II) Other possible areas for consideration: combating crime and drugs;
anti-incitement cooperation; human rights; places of historical and religious
significance and memorials; legal cooperation in the search for missing persons.
ARTICLE IV – Security
A. Security Arrangements
Recognizing the importance of security for both
Parties as an important element of permanent peace and stability, the Parties
will employ the following security arrangements to build mutual confidence in
the implementation of this Treaty and to provide for the security needs of both
1. Areas of limitation of forces and capabilities, including limitations on their
readiness and activities, and on armaments, weapon system and military
infrastructure, as described in Annex —.
2. Within the areas of limitation of forces and capabilities, the establishment of
a demilitarized zone (I: encompassing both the area from which Israeli forces
will be relocated and the existing Area of Separation established under the
Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of 31 May
1974) (S: of equal scope on both sides of the border). As described in Annex
——-, no military forces, armaments, weapon systems, military capabilities, or
military infrastructure will be introduced into the demilitarized zone by either
Party and only a limited civil police presence may be deployed in the area. (I:
Both sides agree not to fly over the demilitarized zone without special
3. Early warning capabilities, including an early warning ground
station on Mt. Hermon (I: with an effective Israeli presence) (S: operated by the
United States and France under their total auspices and responsibilities).
Arrangements for the unimpeded, efficient and continuous operation of this
station are as detailed in Annex ——-.
4. A monitoring, inspection and verification mechanism (I: composed of the two
Parties and a multinational component and including on-site technical means)
(S: through an international presence), to monitor and supervise the
implementation of the security arrangements.
Details regarding these security arrangements, including their
scope, positioning and nature, as well as other security arrangements, are
specified in Annex —–.
B. Other Security Measures
As further steps to ensure a permanent cessation of hostilities of any form
between the Parties or from their territories against each other.
1. Each Party undertakes to refrain from cooperating with any third party in a
hostile alliance of a military character and will ensure that territory under its
control is not used by any military forces of a third party (including their
equipment and armaments) in circumstances that would adversely affect the
security of the other Party.
2. Each Party undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting,
assisting or participating in any acts or threats of violence against the other
Party, its citizens or their property wherever located, and will take effective
measures to ensure that no such acts occur from, or are supported by
individuals on, its territory or territory under its control. In this regard,
without prejudice to the basic rights of freedom of expression and association,
each Party will take necessary and effective measures to prevent the entry,
presence and operation in its territory of any group or organization, and their
infrastructure, which threatens the security of the other Party by the use of, or
incitement to the use of, violent means.
3. Both Parties recognize that international terrorism in all its forms threatens
the security of all nations and therefore share a common interest in the
enhancement of international cooperative efforts to deal with this problem.
C. Cooperation and Liaison in Security Matters
The Parties will establish a direct liaison and coordination mechanism between
them as described in Annex —– to facilitate implementation of the security
provisions in this Treaty. Its responsibilities will include: direct and real-time
communication on security issues, minimization of friction along the
international border, addressing any problems arising during the implementation
process, helping to prevent errors or misinterpretations, and maintaining direct
and continuous contacts with the monitoring, inspection and verification
ARTICLE V – Water
1. The Parties recognize that full resolution of all water issues between them
constitutes a fundamental element in ensuring a stable and lasting peace. (S:
Based on relevant international principles and practices), the Parties have
agreed to establish (I: arrangements that will ensure the continuation of Israel’s
current use in quantity and quality of all) (S: mutually agreeable arrangements
with respect to water quantities and quality from) the surface and underground
waters in the areas from which Israeli forces will (I: relocate) (S: withdraw)
pursuant to Article I, as detailed in Annex —–. (I: The arrangements should
include all necessary measures to prevent contamination, pollution or depletion
of the Kinneret/Tiberias and Upper Jordan River and their sources.)
2. For the purposes of this Article and Annex ——, the Parties will establish (I:
a Joint Water Committee and a supervision and enforcement mechanism) (S: a
Joint Administrative Board). The composition, mandate and mode of operations
of the (I: Joint Water Committee and the supervision and enforcement
mechanism) (S: Joint Administrative Board) will be as detailed in Annex——.
3. The Parties have agreed to cooperate on water-related matters, as detailed in
Annex ——, (I: including ensuring the quantity and quality of water allocated to
Israel under other agreements concerning water originating in Syria.)
ARTICLE VI – Rights and Obligations
1. This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any
way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United
2. The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this
Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other Party and
independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
3. The Parties will take all the necessary measures for the application in their
relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions to which they are
Parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary
General of the United Nations and other depositories of such conventions. They
will also abstain from actions that would curtail the rights of either Party to
participate in international organizations to which they belong in accordance
with the governing provisions of those organizations.
4. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this
5. Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event of a
conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty and any
of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will be binding and
ARTICLE VII – Legislation
The Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary in order to implement
the Treaty, and to repeal any legislation that is inconsistent with the Treaty.
ARTICLE VIII – Settlement of Disputes
Disputes between the Parties arising out of the interpretation or application of
the present Treaty shall be settled by negotiation.
ARTICLE IX – Final Clauses
1. This treaty shall be ratified by both Parties in conformity with their respective
constitutional procedures. It shall enter into force on the exchange of
instruments of ratification and shall supercede all previous bilateral agreements
between the Parties.
2. The Annexes and other attachments attached to this Treaty shall constitute
integral parts thereof.
3. The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United
Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the
Charter of the United Nations.
DONE THIS DAY —— IN ——– IN THE ENGLISH,
HEBREW AND ARABIC LANGUAGES, ALL LANGUAGES BEING EQUALLY
IN CASE OF ANY DIVERGENCE OF INTERPRETATION, THE ENGLISH TEXT
WILL BE AUTHORITATIVE